The function of multiple input multiple output is to create additional capacity through the antenna array, intelligent processing functions and the use of the best propagation channel. This method is called spatial multiplexing. Therefore, base stations and user equipment using multiple input multiple output MIMO can operate on several spatial multiplexing channels, thereby realizing the expansion of available throughput. Given that people predict that there will be dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of devices that require high-throughput data services in the future, the base station design concept with transceiver antennas several times that of existing multiple input multiple output systems has gradually evolved into large-scale multiple input multiple output or massive multiple users with multiple input multiple output.
The goal of massive multiple input multiple output technology is to achieve base stations with a large number of transceiver streams and other network capacity improvement technologies and methods to increase peak downlink throughput, greatly improve uplink performance, and enhance coverage capacity (especially in densely populated urban environments).
In addition to significantly improving network capacity, massive multiple input multiple output technology also has other advantages such as improving spectrum efficiency, reducing energy consumption, extending user equipment battery life, and realizing complexity that is lower than the scalability of previous mobile wireless technologies. In addition, massive multiple input multiple output may also be used as a solution to efficiently provide connection services for the huge amount of machine equipment in the IoT network infrastructure and Industry 4.0 trends.
Finally, as massive multiple input multiple output can be used to establish multiple physical links that can ensure uninterrupted communication for key systems such as aircraft, infrastructure and vehicles, it may also be used as an ultra-high-reliability communication solution. In addition, massive multiple input multiple output is often confused with large-scale multiple input multiple output links with dozens or hundreds of transceiver channels and the concept of full-scale multiple input multiple output. Although these technologies are also derived from multiple input multiple output, it does not serve a large number of users at the same time.
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